Liège in Belgium hit by grenade and gun attack

I live less than 2 kilometers away…

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Why we need JTA 2.0

The JTA API, which was introduced back in 2002 hasn’t changed much in nearly a decade. What could be regarded as a good thing for a specification often referred to as mature, actually isn’t. At least, that’s my opinion (and not the one of any other person nor entity, like my current and previous employers, customers and so on) which I’m going to explain in details in this post.

But what is so wrong about the current specification that I would want to see revised? Well, I’d be lying if didn’t say everything. This blog is my attempt at describing in more details what I don’t like about it, would like to see changed and giving opinions and hints about how I believe it could be improved.

The API from a user perspective

Let’s first start by having a look at the API itself, from a user perspective, ie: someone willing to use an implementation. It’s contained in the javax.transaction package as the javax.transaction.xa one is targeted at implementors.


One of the important aspects of transaction management is error management. Since transactions must guarantee ACIDity no matter what happens, solid error handling is a must. This is the first aspect on which this specification fails: a closer look at the API listed exception shows that the ones in the javax.transaction package don’t have a common ancestor which makes them a pain to manage from the application’s perspective. Look for instance at the UserTransaction.commit() signature: it throws no less than six exceptions including four checked ones. This is at best intimidating but more importantly very confusing and of little help. What is one supposed to do with a HeuristicMixedException? This one is actually thrown when the transaction manager was asked to commit the transaction but some resources (resources being your database or JMS server) followed the commit command while some decided to rollback instead. What is an application supposed to do with such an exception, except report as much detail as possible about it like for instance the list of resources did not manage to commit so a human could take a corrective action. Tough luck, this may or may not be encoded in the reported exception message, depending of the implementation’s good will.

UserTransaction, TransactionManager and Transaction

These three interfaces are a great source of confusion, and of poor design. Let’s first discuss the first two: UserTransaction and TransactionManager. A quick investigation shows that the former interface is an exact copy of the latter minus three methods: suspend, resume and getTransaction. The javadoc explains that UserTransaction is meant for application programmers while TransactionManager is for internal application server use only.

I don’t get why there is such separation between applications and app servers. Why would programmers writing business applications wouldn’t be authorized to suspend and resume transactions? I guess the original intent was with EJB only in mind but event then, EJBs can be configured with Bean Managed Transactions maybe since 1.0, certainly since 2.0. Why application programmers weren’t allowed to use this API, required to implement the REQUIRES_NEW transaction demarcation by suspending the active transaction before starting a new one?

The TransactionManager interface also is confusing, even when put in its original application-server-only context. It contains begin, getTransaction, commit, rollback and setRollbackOnly methods, the latter three being redundant with the exact same methods of the Transaction interface. I know TransactionManager is meant to be implemented as a singleton storing the transaction context (represented by the Transaction interface) in a thread-local or equivalent storage. But why making the API so confusing? It would have been so much simpler to only have a begin method returning a Transaction object in TransactionManager and leave the commit, rollback and setRollbackOnly methods in the Transaction object. Why this redundancy for no benefit but added confusion? It’s not even clear if an application server is allowed to call Transaction.commit() or not and some implementors and users disagree on what should happen in that case. The spec is silent on the subject.

Even if that separation made sense, I also wonder why the interfaces designed towards application programmers and app server programmers ended up in the same package, why no spi or equivalent package was created for the sake of clean separation of concern?


That’s easy: there is nothing. Yes, the UserTransaction implementation is supposed to be available under the java:comp/UserTransaction JNDI name but that’s defined in another specification. I know JTA was meant for application servers only but how confusing is that to specify interfaces but not how to lookup their implementations? Even application servers’ implementors must have been confused by this lack of coherency.

The API from a transaction manager implementor’s perspective

The javax.transaction.xa package is targeted at implementors but as we’ve seen earlier, the javax.transaction package should be taken into consideration as well.

Exceptions again

The implementor’s job isn’t any better, quite the contrary. The javax.transaction.xa package’s single declared exception XAException is a joke to any programmer  decently versed in OO programming: this is the only exception used to report problems between a XA resource and a transaction manager and it can mean absolutely everything: when this exception is thrown the reason must be encoded as an integer and the code which is going to catch it must use a switch block (or if/else statements) to figure out the exception’s meaning and take appropriate action. I’m not going to go into much more details as to why this is a disastrous design in any OO language but to add insult to injury, this exception has three constructors only one of which accepts a value for that error code. You basically have choice during construction between either setting the error code or a humanly readable error message and if you decide to go with the message variant, the error code’s default value is 0 (zero) which is an invalid error code. How convenient is that? Some implementors may very well decide to leave the error message out which drastically complicates debugging even simple problems. And some did.

Enlistment and XAResource

This undoubtedly is one of the ugliest part of the specification. XAResource is an interface for which resources (again: databases, JMS servers…) supporting the XA protocol must provide an implementation in a completely undefined way. Actually, this is defined but in other specifications: the JDBC one describes how this work for JDBC drivers and the JMS one for JMS servers. But there is no single line in the JTA spec about how to get access to an XAResource implementation and that complicates the big picture again. I’ll come back to that later.

Enlistment is the act of telling a transaction (via the Transaction interface) that a resource is going to participate in it. This is done by calling the Transaction.enlistResource(XAResource xar) method which returns false when something went wrong with the enlistment. Figuring out what went wrong when this happens is an exercise to the API user as there is no way to get more details about the problem, like an exception could provide… when properly designed. Under the hood, this should eventually make the transaction manager trigger a XAResource.start() call to tell the resource any further work is going to be part of a global transaction.

The XAResource interface is a near-direct translation to java of the X/Open XA specification which was meant for the C language. Things that made sense in C are looking clunky in java as – once again – OO design was not considered. That’s why we have methods like start(Xid xid, int flags) accept a flags argument or prepare(Xid xid) return a flag which can be one of the many constants defined in the XAResource interface. You have to constantly refer to the javadoc to figure out which ones are legal for a particular method call from the ones which aren’t. Even for someone with experience of the subject it’s near impossible to remember all the valid combinations and you have to constantly get back and forth between the doc and your IDE. That’s not exactly what I call a well designed and self-documenting API. If the reason was to ease the implementation of the XAResource by making the API as close as possible to the XA one I’m sorry but that’s no good excuse: a look-alike but OO-designed API would have fit the bill more appropriately and it’s not exactly rocket science to encapsulate lower-level API calls. For instance, start(xid, TM_NOFLAGS) could have been start(xid), start(xid, TM_JOIN) could have been join(xid) and start(xid, TM_RESUME) could have been resume(xid). That would have made XAResource a lot less painful to work with. The same is true for other methods like end (same as start), prepare (why not a boolean return value?), commit (why a onePhase boolean instead of two method calls: commit and commitOnePhase?) and recover (why not just returning an array with all Xids directly?).

Recovery and XAResource

Recovery is fundamental to all transactional systems, it’s a process that kicks in to clean up and finish unachieved work after a problem occurred, for instance after a crash or a power outage. How this is supposed to work is completely up to your imagination if you stick to the JTA spec, you have to read and fully understand the XA spec to understand how the mechanism works and should be implemented. And even then you’re left responseless regarding some important pieces of the puzzle.

The recovery logic is about calling XAResource.recover() to get a list of Xids (basically transaction IDs) which are in need of cleanup, reconciliate that with the transaction manager’s activity logs (a.k.a. transaction logs) and figure out how to clean them up either by rolling back or committing. But how to get your hands on the XAResource’s which participated in the transaction? Those aren’t persistent and there is no documented mechanism about how to reconstruct or retrieve them back, the spec merely explains that a JNDI lookup of some kind of XAResource factory could be used. That’s kind of a big gap even if that – once again – supposedly is the job of the application server to keep track of those XAResource factories but there is no documented way of matching a XAResource back to its factory (so the transaction manager can record what resources are participating in a transaction) nor even how to get a XAResource back from its factory (to call recover on them).

Then when is that supposed to run? During startup after figuring out the process running the transaction manager crashed? That’s without counting on resource crashes, network outages and so on. It’s an extremely delicate process that when implemented wrong totally jeopardizes your data integrity while you’re paying the high 2 phase-commit price to keep it safe and the spec remains silent about good practices, common caveats and years of experience on the subject. I hope reading this won’t prevent your from sleeping at night, especially since there is no reference implementation nor any JTA TCK which could help validating implementations. There are some tests in the J2EE TCK (so I’ve heard) but nothing which checks data integrity can be guaranteed after a crash, no even an attempt at that.

The API from a XAResource implementor’s perspective

Not only is the XAResource API bad, but it also assumes or asserts unrealistic requirements from the underlying resource. The spec also is silent on the subject and you have to refer to other ones to get resource-specific details.

Resource-specific details

If you want to implement a XAResource for a JDBC driver or a JMS client you can refer to those specs. What if you want to implement an XAResource for another kind of resource? That’s when the JCA (a.k.a J2CA or Connector Architecture) comes in play. I’m not going to debate the merits nor the failures of JCA except for the fact that this specification is meant for application servers only. Apparently there’s no life outside application servers according to that spec which was the common thinking back in 2003 but nowadays this is completely backwards and calls for a refreshment.

Resource requirements

Have you ever heard of the concept of transaction interleaving? That’s the capacity of executing two transactions in parallel using a single handler. With databases that means being able to execute two different transactions on a single connection and keeping them properly isolated. This feature is extremely uncommon out there as nearly all the most used databases don’t support that are their core: they’re only capable of running a single transaction per connection which is plain fine 99.999% of the time as you’re free to get a second connection in case you really need to run two transactions in parallel. I’m so sorry to report that the JTA spec mandates XAResource candidates to fully support transaction interleaving (paragraph 3.4.6 of the JTA 1.0.1B spec for the curious ones) and that most XAResource implementation out there will simply fail with various results in the range between reporting an error to screwing up your data integrity when two transactions are interleaved on the same connection. It’s entirely possible to implement a 100% spec compliant transaction manager which doesn’t work in most scenarios.

Loose assumptions

A transaction is bound to a thread, and all transactional resources accessed by that thread after a transaction begun are supposed to be automatically enlisted and delisted by an unspecified mechanism. Yes, automatically enlisted and delisted as enlistment and delistment can only be performed from the Transaction object which is only accessible from the TransactionManager object which an application developer isn’t supposed to have access to. This works with very convoluted designs in JDBC, JMS and JCA (check the XAResource chapter of these specs as well as some J2EE ones I forgot about to get a grasp of what it takes) but is horribly cumbersome. Did you know you have to use a special JTA-aware connection pool for your JDBC connection to be able to participate in a JTA transaction? Well if you don’t use one then your JDBC work will just silently be auto-committed. Once again this relies on the fact that the app server is supposed to provide us with that, okay we can live with that even if that cries for a rework once again and even if some resources would love to be able to participate in JTA transactions without the burden of implementing a JCA connector: the Berkeley DB Java Edition and the Java Content Repositories come to my mind. This loose mechanism turns from a extra burden into an extreme challenge for resources which aren’t connection oriented like transactional caches which need to jump through hoops to figure out when enlistment and delistment should happen as they don’t have an equivalent get connection / close connection cycle.

The rest of the spec

After this JTA API review, there isn’t much left to say about the spec. Let’s quickly summarize that with the fact that the JTA spec relies on a perfect understanding of the X/Open XA spec by the reader. The presumed abort concept, critical to the implementation of the recovery process isn’t even mentioned once. It’s horribly frustrating to constantly have to refer to both the JTA and XA specs to assert that a transaction manager implementation may be doing something wrong with the extra mental exercise of translating the C concepts of the XA spec into java.


I don’t want to blame anyone for the sad state of the JTA specification. It’s bad for whatever reason, maybe a lack of time as it needed to be part of the early J2EE spec, certainly because of a lack of love in the past 8 or so years.

The fact is that this specification definitely needs to be refreshed and deserves more love than it ever had as transactions are a too important subject that will stick with us for the coming decades and will probably need a strong basis for the future challenges it may face in the future like the NoSQL move or the CAP theorm.

Please forgive any inaccuracy / mistake / pure lie you may find in this text and feel free to comment and publicly ridicule me if you find it necessary.

Posted in JTA | 9 Comments

X-Lite 4 beta expired trick

Professionally as well as privately I heavily rely on VOIP and SIP for my voice communication needs. I’ve been using X-Lite 4 Beta quite happily for more than six months, until the day the beta expired. As surprisingly as it may sound, good quality MacOSX SIP clients are scarce to say the least so I wanted to find a decent workaround to the problem if possible while also testing a potential replacement.

I’m not going to debate about the subject but just share a little trick I’ve found while searching for a solution on the web. If you are also impacted by this annoyance you’ll certainly find this useful as it allows you to use X-Lite again without having to mess around, it just works again.

So here it is:

If you’re using build 56227 for Mac, then open terminal and run:

$ cd /Applications/X-Lite
$ hexdump -ve '1/1 "%.2x"' cpc_phone | sed "s/0f88e5000000/909090909090/" | xxd -r -p >cpc_phone.fixed
$ cp cpc_phone.fixed cpc_phone

You may want to backup cpc_phone first in case you mess it up.

This will make the beta continue to work until they (Counterpath) release a new update.

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JavaWorld 2010 presentation

I received an email overnight saying my JavaWorld 2010 submission has been accepted. I’ll be presenting something related to JTA together with Alex Snaps of Terracotta.

Stay tuned to learn more about this!

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BTM’s latest beta version just published

Last year BTM activity slowed down and nearly stopped definitely. This time is no more; as I just quickly explained in my classic ‘new version released’ email I publish on the mailing list the project is healthy once again.

The most interesting new features of this release (apart from a rewrite of the weakest part of the engine) are, in no particular order:

Support for per connection affinity

A connection opened from the JDBC pool will now ‘stick’ to the thread which opened it, ie: calling DataSource.getConnection() many times in a row will now always return the exact same connection.

This feature has been requested long ago because some databases have too brittle XA support and isolation between two connections to the same database participating in the same transaction wasn’t always working as expected.

All that code has been written by Brett Wooldridge who joined the project as a committer a few months ago, thanks mate!

Compatibility with JDBC 4 API

Another feature implemented by Brett. Connection wrappers returned by the PoolingDataSource now implement the full JDBC4 API when used with JDK1.6. It is even possible to use the standardized connection testing by setting enableJdbc4ConnectionTest on PoolingDataSource instead of the less performant testQuery.

JTA 1.1 support

There is little to say about this one except that BTM is now in line with the latest standard. The changes in this release of the specification are rather minimal and close to useless but if you want to use the TransactionSynchronizationRegistry it’s now there. This will also help with Maven 2 dependencies as some projects using JTA tend to depend on this revision of the JTA jar.

Now that version 2.0.0 nearly is out there (still in beta but shouldn’t take long to get final) the path is free to cleanup BTM and make it more in-sync with today’s technologies. I still can’t wait to get feedback on this beta!

On the roadmap the big points are the adoption of Maven 2 as the build tool and the drop of JDK 1.4 support. Any thoughts, questions, comments, complains about this? Suggestions?

What do people dislike in BTM and what would they love to see happening? Comments are welcome!

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Apparently my work on BTM hasn’t been as unnoticed as I thought: I got emails from a bunch of nice persons as well as some real propositions for work! This is much more than I expected and I’d like to warmly thanks everyone who showed any kind of support.

I’ve signed this weekend a contract with an amazing company, something I would never have though possible some weeks ago. Not only this job looks incredibly interesting but it will leave me with enough time to go on working on BTM in the future.

Thanks again to everyone who uses my project and enjoy using it as much as I enjoy coding it.

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Adopt a JTA expert

Once upon a time, there was a java developer who decided to write a standalone transaction manager in java. He worked hard on it on his own time but even if he never got rich because of it, it was a lot of fun so all was good in the Kingdom of XA.

Unfortunately bad times have come due to a worldwide economy recession. This greatly impacted our little java developer and consequently his nice little transaction manager as well. Finding gigs became harder, commutes increased and his family time as well as his available time to work on his product decreased drastically.

The time has come for our developer to make a hard decision : unless he can find some kind of financing for his nice, beloved, little transaction manager he will soon be forced to abandon it to better take care of his family.

JTA transaction manager expert on the bench

This story (minus the *isney-like style) actually is mine and yes, this really is a picture of myself sitting on the sidewalk. I’m not really on the street (yet) but my current contract is about to end. If I cannot find external financing I’ll soon have to take the hard decision to give up working on BTM and abandon this project as I don’t think I’ll be able to continue freely working anymore on it in the future.

I’ve spent about a year and a half building up the 1.0 version and continuously improved and supported it since then, all that completely on my own time and money. It’s no easy decision but if that’s the only choice I have then too bad and so be it.

Any proposition which could help me continue working on the BTM project is more than welcome.

Thanks for reading this,

Ludovic Orban – Author of the Bitronix Transaction Manager

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OpenSolaris Boomer rocks

I’m a big fan of Solaris in general, I consider this OS to be the best you can find to run on a server. Unfortunately it always lagged behind in all regards as a workstation OS when compared to Linux, not to mention MacOSX or Windows.

I’ve tried the OpenSolaris releases in the past and while improvement is visible it still isn’t ready to compete on the workstation OS market.

What always bothered me most is that sound support has always been terrible. Drivers are close to non-existent and sound quality was always acceptable at best when you could find supported hardware.

Now things have changed in that area too thanks to the OpenSound port effort codenamed Boomer and lead by Garett D’Amore, my new hero ! Not only common hardware is now supported but the sound quality is astonishing ! I can finally watch DVDs, DIVX and listen to my MP3′s when coding under OpenSolaris.

Thanks to Garrett and his team for this wonderful piece of software !

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Going to Devoxx this year

I just registered for Devvox (previously known as Javapolis). If you ever happen to go as well and would like to discuss about BTM, let me know !

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Improved BTM integration with Tomcat and Jetty

Tomcat and Jetty integration has been improved in BTM 1.3.1. Integration is not anymore a clever hack but a clean integration with both container’s lifecyle.

This basically involved writing new classes that plugs in each container’s lifecycle, they are available in the distribution’s integration folder and are named btm-jetty6-lifecycle.jar and btm-tomcat55-lifecycle.jar for Jetty and Tomcat respectively.

Not only is that now working better than the previous way but I’ve finally found time to document this again for both Jetty and Tomcat. Following those instructions now allow you to get seamless integration of BTM and take advantage of JTA in those containers like you would in any full-blow application servers.

There is still a lot of work to do on the documentation level but things are slowly moving in the right direction. If there is something still unclear, poorly or not at all documented, I’d love to hear your comments.

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